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- A substance that is capable of bonding material together by surface attachment.
Glue and Contact Cement are examples
- Air Dried
- Lumber stacked and stored so that it is dried naturally by the exposure to air.
- Allen Head link
- A screw head with a recess requiring a hexagon shaped key, used mainly on machinery. These may be in metric or SAE sizes.
- Annual Growth Ring
- The layer of growth to the circumference of a tree in a season, easily recognizable in many woods by the difference in cells formed during the early and late parts of the season.
- Applied Carving
A background which is worked separately and then applied, rather than being worked in place.
- Apron link
- A frame around the base of a table to which the top and legs are fastened.
- A stub shaft on a machine to turn blades or other cutting wheels.
- Pointed instrument that looks like an ice pick, useful for marking positions when laying out a project.
- Back Saw link
- A handsaw with a rectangular blade with a reinforcing rib along the back for stability, types include razor saws, veneer saws, dovetail saws, and miter box saws.
- A saw with a looped blade running around two or three wheels. Used with narrow blades for cutting freehand shapes, and with wider blades and a guide for resawing material.
- The outer protective layer of a tree.
A semicircular piece of moulding.
- Bench Dogs
- Pegs which go into holes in the top of a workbench that work with a vise to hold wide material.
- Birds-eye Figure
A figure on wood, usually maple and a few other species, composed of many small rounded areas resembling a birds eye.
Biscuit Joint link
- An oval shapped disk that when inserted in a slot with glue swells to form a tight bond. A special tool is required to cut the slot.
- Metal disks aprox. 3 1/2" in diameter that go on each side of a saw blade to minimize flexing and rim vibration.
- A small plane designed for cutting across end grain.
- Measurement of lumber equal to one square foot an inch thick or 144 cubic inches. Multiply width in inches X length in inches X thickness in inches, divide by 144 for total board feet.
- Successive layers of veneer are arranged side by side to resemble a mirror image of each other.
A warp along the length of a board.
- Box Joint link
- Square shaped finger joints used to join pieces at right angles.
- This is a hand drill with a crank shaped handle with a flat knob on the end, special auger bits with a square tapered shank fit into a two jaw chuck. This is a ancient system but still works well when jobs are done by hand.
- Similar to twist drill but with a flat bottom and sharp point.
- A joint where the edges of two boards are against each other.
- A tool for burning a name or logo on to wood, electric or flame heated.
- An insturment with two legs, one of them sliding, used to measure the thickness of objects.
- Extremely hard steel pieces with sharp cutting edges fastened to cutting tools such as saw blades, and router bits.
- Card Scraper
A flat blade with a burred edge used for smoothing.
- The case or box of a piece of furniture, it is the rough framework and structure of the item.
- Rectangular shaped pencil, about 1/4" X 1/2", with a 1/16" X 3/16" lead.
- To bevel the corner of a board at a 45° angle.
A defect caused by uneven shrinking of the wood during drying, a checked board has splits which develop lengthwise across the growth rings.
- An attachment to hold work or a tool in a machine, lathe chucks and drill chucks are examples.
- When the grit on sandpaper covers 100% of the backing paper it is referred to as closed-coat. This is used for sanding hardwood and fine finishing.
- A type of chuck that accepts a fixed shaft size, commonly used on routers.
- A square that measures both 90 degree and 45 degree angles.
- Common Grade Lumber
Lumber with obvious defects, used in construction framing.
- Compass link
- An insturment for drawing circles consisting of two legs joined at a pivot hinge.
- An angled cut to both the edge and face of a board, most common use is with crown moulding.
- Coping Saw
- A type of hand saw used to cut intricate external shapes and interior cutouts in woodworking or carpentry.
- Countersink link
- A special drill bit that allows a screw head to sit flush with the face of the material it is driven into.
- A cut which runs across the board perpendicular to the grain.
- This is when the edges of a board bend with the grain away from the center to form a concave shape.
- A term to describe what happens to wood as it grows. Curly wood looks like sand on the beach or river bottom with repeated ripples in the grain. The grain goes up and down causing the unusual look in the wood. Also called "tiger" grain or "fiddleback".
- A groove in the face of a board, usually to accept another board at 90 degrees as in shelf uprights.
Trees that shed their foliage annually, commonly referred to as hardwood.
- Dial Gauge
- This measuring instrument has a circular graduated face and a pin which activates a rotating pointer to measure variation in movement in thousands of an inch.
- A joint where the fingers are shaped like a doves tail, used to join pieces at 90 degrees.
- A wood pin used to align and hold two adjoining pieces.
- Metal buttons that go into a predrilled dowel hole to mark the position for drilling the second piece.
- The dimension of lumber after being surfaced by a planer.
- A two part glue that practically glues anything to anything, including metal to metal.
- A hidden style hinge fastened to the door with a cup hole.
When a board has one side that is wider than the other, the wider side is referred to as the face (as opposed to the edge). May also refer to the side that is to be visible in the finished item.
- Face Frame
A flat frame attached to the front of a cabinet, usually to conceal the exposed edges of the plywood panels used to build the carcase.
- Pieces of wood with fingers used to hold material against a fence and or down against the table on power tools such as a table saw.
- A straight guide on a tool such as a table saw or router table to keep the material a set parallel distance from the blade or cutter.
- Describes wood, usually maple or mahogany but can be any wood, with Curl or Tiger grain material with fine grain used in the manufacture of violins, hence the name.
A naturally occurring decorative patterns in wood, usually due to medullary rays.
- Filler link
- A substance that is used the fill pores and irregularities on the surface of material to decrease the porosity before applying a finishing coat.
- Long tapered fingers used to join material lenghtwise, often used in manufacturing moulding to join short lengths.
- Flat-sawn link
A method of sawing lumber where the log is cut tangential to the growth rings, also called plain-sawn.
- When two adjoining surfaces are perfectly even with one another. See Proud and Shy.
- Fret Saw link
A saw with a very narrow fine toothed blade used for delicate cuts in thin material.
- Forstner Bit link
- These have a center spur and circular rims with cutting teeth that cut clean flat bottomed holes.
- Plywood with one side patched solid and sanded, the other side will be rough and have open knot holes.
A chisel like tool with a curved cutting edge.
- The appearance, size and direction of the alignment of the fibres of the wood.
- Green Lumber
Freshly cut lumber that has not been dried.
- Grit link
The grade of particles in sandpaper or sharpening stones which determines the aggressiveness of the cut.
- Gum Pocket
- An excessive local accumulation of resin or gum in the wood.
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- Hand Plane link
tool to smooth and true wood surfaces, consisting of a blade fastened
in frame at an angle with hand grips to slide it along the board.
- Hardboard link
manufactured board similar to particle board but with a much smoother
surface, commonly refered to as Masonite, a popular brand.
- Hardwood link
- Lumber from the group of trees with broad leaves, this has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.
wood from the pith extending to the sapwood, darker in colour due to
gum, resins, and other materials which make it less susceptable to rot.
A mechanical device that connects two solid objects, allowing rotation between them.
- Hold Down
A type of iron clamp, fitting into a hole in a bench, tightened or loosened by hammer taps.
- Hollow Grinding
A concave bevel on a chisel, gouge, or knife.
- Horned Dado link
- This is caused by the outside blades of a stacked dado head cutting deeper than the chipper blades.
- The side of a power tool where a board enters.
- Janka Test
hardness test, usually for wood flooring, rating is pounds of pressure
required to press a steel ball .444 inches in diameter one half way
into the wood.
- A device used to hold work or act as a guide in manufacturing or assembly.
- Jig Saw
A power tool that cuts by moving a blade up and down as it is guided through the cut.
- A joiner is a type of a carpenter that cuts and fits joints in wood.
- The width of a saw cut, determined by the thickness and set of the blade.
- Kick Back
- This is when a workpiece is thrown back by a cutter, prevented using anti-kick back devices on power tools such as table saws.
- A heated chamber for drying lumber where the air flow, heat and relative humidy can be controled.
- Kiln Dried
- Lumber dried in a kiln.
A furniture design that allows it to be easily disassembled by the use of special hardware or joinery.
- The portion of a branch or limb that is embedded in the wood.
- The product of bonding layers together as in beams or plywood.
- Linseed Oil
an amber-colored, fatty oil extracted from the cotyledon and inner
coats of the linseed. The raw oil extracted from the seeds by hydraulic
pressure is pale in color and practically without taste or odor. When
boiled or extracted by application of heat and pressure, it is darker
and has a bitter taste and an unpleasant odor.
- MDF link
- Medium density fiberboard, very stable underlay for counter tops etc. to be covered with laminate.
- Milk Paint
- A paint made with milk solids, chemically akin to casein glue, often the original finish on antique furniture.
- Mission Style
Style is a design that emphasizes simple horizontal and vertical lines
and flat panels that accentuate the grain of the wood (usually oak).
Gustav Stickley produced Arts and Crafts furniture often referred to as
being in the Mission Style.
FREE MISSION STYLE PLANS
- Miter Box
- An apparatus to guide a saw to make miter joints.
- Miter Gauge
- A guide with an adjustable head that fits in a slot and slides across a power tool table to cut material at an angle.
- Miter Joint link
- Pieces are cut on an angle to make a joint.
- Miter Saw Link
- A type of chop saw where the angle of the blade in relation to the fence is adjustable to cut material at an angle, compound miter saws feature a tilting blade as well. A sliding compound miter saw is a compound miter saw with horizontal sliding arms for the cutter head allowing cuts on much wider boards.
- Molding (Moulding)
- A strip of material with a profile cut on the facing edges, used for trimming.
- Morse Taper
- The standard for the taper
on the shanks of drill chucks, drill bits and lathe centers. The
different size tapers are designated by numbers, #1 being the smallest,
#3 is common for drill chucks.
- Mortise link
- A cavity or hole cut to allow a tennon to pass through to make a joint.
A strip of wood or metal separating and holding panes of glass in a window or door.