- A substance that is capable of bonding material
together by surface attachment. Glue and Contact Cement
- A tool similar to an axe with a blade perpendicular
to the handle, used to carve wood.
- Air Dried
- Lumber stacked and stored so that it is dried
naturally by the exposure to air.
- Allen Head link
- A screw head with a recess requiring a hexagon
shaped key, used mainly on machinery. These may be in
metric or SAE sizes.
- A steel rod threaded its entire length, available in
various diameters, usually threaded SAE coarse.
- Annual Growth Ring
- The layer of growth to the circumference of a tree
in a season, easily recognizable in many woods by the
difference in cells formed during the early and late
parts of the season.
- Antikickback Pawls
- Toothed fingers that prevent wood from being thrown
back toward the operator when ripping on table and
radial arm saws.
- Applied Carving
A background which is worked separately and then
applied, rather than being worked in place.
- Apron link
- A frame around the base of a table to which the top
and legs are fastened.
- A stub shaft on a machine to turn blades or other
- Auger Bit Link
- A drill bit with a helical screw blade to remove the
- Auxillary Fence
- Sacrificial material fastened to a machine table
fence to protect it from damage by a blade or cutter.
- Pointed instrument that looks like an ice pick,
useful for marking positions when laying out a
- Back Saw link
A handsaw with a rectangular blade with a reinforcing
rib along the back for stability, types include razor
saws, veneer saws, dovetail saws, and miter box saws.
- Band Saw link
A saw with a looped blade running around two or three
wheels. Used with narrow blades for cutting freehand
shapes, and with wider blades and a guide for resawing
The outer protective layer of a tree.
A semicircular piece of moulding.
- Bench Dogs
Pegs which go into holes
in the top of a workbench that work with a vise to
hold wide material.
The angle that one surface or line makes with
another when they are not at right angles.
- Bevel Square
A handle with an adjustable blade which may be set
at any desired angle.
- Birds-eye Figure
A figure on wood, usually maple and a few other
species, composed of many small rounded areas
resembling a birds eye.
- Biscuit Joint link
An oval shapped disk that when inserted in a slot
with glue swells to form a tight bond. A special
tool is required to cut the slot.
- Blade Stablizers
Metal disks aprox. 3 1/2" in diameter that go on each
side of a saw blade to minimize flexing and rim
- Block Plane link
A small plane designed for cutting across end grain.
- Generally referenced as lumber 1" or less in
thickness of any length or width.
- Board Foot link
- Measurement of lumber equal to one square foot an
inch thick or 144 cubic inches. Multiply width in
inches X length in inches X thickness in inches,
divide by 144 for total board feet.
Successive layers of veneer are arranged side by
side to resemble a mirror image of each other.
A warp along the length of a board.
- Box Joint link
Square shaped finger joints used to join pieces at
- Brace and Bit
This is a hand drill with a crank shaped handle with
a flat knob on the end, special auger bits with a
square tapered shank fit into a two jaw chuck. This is
a ancient system but still works well when jobs are
done by hand.
- Brad Point Bit link
Similar to twist drill but with a flat bottom and sharp
- Breadboard End link
A board that runs across the end of the boards making
up a panel such as a table top that has allowance for
expansion built in.
- Bridle Joint Link
Often described as the reverse of a mortise and
A growth on a tree with a complex grain.
- Butt Joint link
A joint where the edges of two boards are against each
- Branding Iron
A tool for burning a name or logo on to wood,
electric or flame heated.
An insturment with two legs, one of them sliding,
used to measure the thickness of objects.
- Carbide Tipped
Extremely hard steel pieces with sharp cutting edges
fastened to cutting tools such as saw blades, and
- Card Scraper Link
Lumber with obvious defects, used in construction
- Common Pitch
A plane blade bedded at 45 degrees, typical of most
- Compass link
An insturment for drawing
circles consisting of two legs joined at a pivot
- Compound Miter
An angled cut to both the edge and face of a board,
most common use is with crown moulding.
- Coping Saw
A type of hand saw used to cut intricate external
shapes and interior cutouts in woodworking or carpentry.
- Countersink link
A special drill bit that allows a screw head to sit
flush with the face of the material it is driven into.
- Cross Cut
A cut which runs across the board perpendicular to the
This is when the edges of a board bend with the grain
away from the center to form a concave shape.
A term to describe what happens to wood as it grows.
Curly wood looks like sand on the beach or river bottom
with repeated ripples in the grain. The grain goes up
and down causing the unusual look in the wood. Also
called "tiger" grain or "fiddleback".
A groove in the face of a board, usually to accept
another board at 90 degrees as in shelf uprights.
- Deciduous Link
Trees that shed their foliage annually, commonly
referred to as hardwood.
- Dial Gauge
This measuring instrument has a circular graduated
face and a pin which activates a rotating pointer to
measure variation in movement in thousands of an inch.
- Dovetail Joint link
A joint where the fingers are shaped like a doves
tail, used to join pieces at 90 degrees.
- Dowel link
A wood pin used to align and hold two adjoining
- Dowel Center link
Metal buttons that go into a predrilled dowel hole to
mark the position for drilling the second piece.
- Dressed Size
The dimension of lumber after being surfaced by a
- Drill Press
- A machine tool in which a drill bit, is pushed into
a workpiece to produce a hole.
- Dust Collector
A dust collector system consists of a blower, dust
filter, and a dust collection bag.
A glossy colored finish with high varnish content.
- End Grain
The exposed pores on the end of a board.
- Epoxy Glue
A two part glue that practically glues anything to
anything, including metal to metal.
A protective metal plate around a keyhole, door handle
or drawer pull.
- Expansion Bit
A drill bit with an adjustable cutter that may be set
to drill any size hole.
When a board has one side that is wider than the other,
the wider side is referred to as the face (as opposed to
the edge). May also refer to the side that is to be
visible in the finished item.
- Face Frame
A flat frame attached to the front of a cabinet,
usually to conceal the exposed edges of the plywood
panels used to build the carcase.
Pieces of wood with fingers used to hold material
against a fence and or down against the table on power
tools such as a table saw.
A straight guide on a tool such as a table saw or
router table to keep the material a set parallel
distance from the blade or cutter.
Describes wood, usually maple or mahogany but can be
any wood, with Curl or Tiger grain material with fine
grain used in the manufacture of violins, hence the
A naturally occurring decorative patterns in wood,
usually due to medullary rays.
- Filler link
A substance that is used the fill pores and
irregularities on the surface of material to decrease
the porosity before applying a finishing coat.
- Finger Joint
Long tapered fingers used to join material lenghtwise,
often used in manufacturing moulding to join short
A device to support or hold work in place.
- Flat-sawn link
A method of sawing lumber where the log is cut
tangential to the growth rings, also called plain-sawn.
- A board in which the round of the trunk is still
visible, also known as a slab.
When two adjoining surfaces are perfectly even with one
another. See Proud and Shy.
- Fret Saw link
A saw with a very narrow fine toothed blade used for
delicate cuts in thin material.
- French Cleat link
- A method used to hang cabinets utilizing two beveled
- Forstner Bit link
These have a center spur and circular rims with cutting
teeth that cut clean flat bottomed holes.
- Good One Side
Plywood with one side patched solid and sanded, the
other side will be rough and have open knot holes.
- Gouge Link
A chisel like tool with a curved cutting edge.
The appearance, size and direction of the alignment of
the fibres of the wood.
- Green Lumber
- An excessive local accumulation of resin or gum in the
- Hand Plane link
- A tool to smooth and true wood surfaces, consisting of a
blade fastened in frame at an angle with hand grips to
slide it along the board.
- Hand-Screw Clamp link
- Clamps made with hardwood jaws and two hand screws that
can be tightened independently.
- Hardboard link
A manufactured board similar to particle board but with a
much smoother surface, commonly refered to as Masonite, a
- Hardwood link
- Lumber from the group of trees with broad leaves, this
has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.
- The wood from the pith extending to the sapwood, darker
in colour due to gum, resins, and other materials which
make it less susceptable to rot.
A mechanical device that connects two solid objects,
allowing rotation between them.
- Hold Down
A type of iron clamp, fitting into a hole in a bench,
tightened or loosened by hammer taps.
- Hollow Grinding
A concave bevel on a chisel, gouge, or knife.
- Horned Dado link
- This is caused by the outside blades of a stacked dado
head cutting deeper than the chipper blades.
- Impact Driver
- Cordless impact drivers are replacing drills to drive
screws in wood, they feature both bit rotation and
concussive blows to power-drive the screws. Impact drivers
typically deliver two to three times more turning force
(torque) than the average drill/driver
- An imperial measure, 1/12th of a foot, equal to 2.54 cm.
- The side of a power tool where a board enters.
- The insertion of peices of contrasting wood into
depressions flush with the surface.
- A mosiac or 3D picture in wood.
- Janka Test
- A hardness test, usually for wood flooring, rating is
pounds of pressure required to press a steel ball .444
inches in diameter one half way into the wood.
- A device used to control the location or motion of
- Jig Saw Link
A power tool that cuts by moving a blade up and down as
it is guided through the cut.
A joiner is a type of a carpenter that cuts and fits
joints in wood.
The art or trade of joining wood.
- Joint link
- The width of a saw cut, determined by the thickness and
set of the blade.
- This is when a workpiece is thrown back by a cutter,
prevented using anti-kickback devices on power tools such
as table saws.
- A heated chamber for drying lumber where the air flow,
heat and relative humidy can be controled.
- Kiln Dried
- Lumber dried in a kiln.
A furniture design that allows it to be easily
disassembled by the use of special hardware or joinery.
- The portion of a branch or limb that is embedded in the
- The product of bonding layers together as in beams or
- A tool to indicate horizontal or vertical surfaces.
- Linseed Oil
- Is an amber-colored, fatty oil extracted from the
cotyledon and inner coats of the linseed. The raw oil
extracted from the seeds by hydraulic pressure is pale in
color and practically without taste or odor. When boiled
or extracted by application of heat and pressure, it is
darker and has a bitter taste and an unpleasant odor.
- Logs sawn into boards, planks, beams, etc.
- MDF link
- Medium density fiberboard, very stable underlay for
counter tops etc. to be covered with laminate.
- Milk Paint
- A paint made with milk solids, chemically akin to casein
glue, often the original finish on antique furniture.
- Mission Style
Mission Style is a design that emphasizes simple
horizontal and vertical lines and flat panels that
accentuate the grain of the wood (usually oak). Gustav
Stickley produced Arts and Crafts furniture often referred
to as being in the Mission Style.
MISSION STYLE PLANS
- Miter Box
- An apparatus to guide a saw to make miter joints.
- Miter Gauge
- A guide with an adjustable head that fits in a slot and
slides across a power tool table to cut material at an
- Miter Joint link
- Pieces are cut on an angle to make a joint.
- Miter Saw Link
- A type of chop saw where the angle of the blade in
relation to the fence is adjustable to cut material at an
angle, compound miter saws feature a tilting blade as well.
A sliding compound miter saw is a compound miter saw with
horizontal sliding arms for the cutter head allowing cuts on
much wider boards.
- Molding (Moulding)